Sexual Assault Policies and Procedures

Our Commitment
Westmont is committed to maintaining an environment in which members of its community and its guests may pursue their interests free from sexual assault and other forms of sexual harassment.

Westmont is committed to effectively investigating all complaints made under this policy and taking remedial and/or disciplinary action where appropriate in as expeditious a manner as possible. Westmont is deeply concerned about any incidents of sexual assault and strongly encourages the prompt reporting of all allegations of sexual assault to the college and to law enforcement officials. The college will not tolerate retaliation against any individual for making a complaint under this policy.

Individuals Covered Under This Policy
This policy and the procedures that follow apply to incidents of sexual assault between students or when the alleged perpetrator is a student. To report a violation of this policy when the alleged perpetrator is a faculty member, contact the provost at 805-565- 6007. If the alleged perpetrator is a staff member, contact the director of human resources at 805-565-6101. For information regarding reporting other forms of sexual harassment see the college's Policy on Unlawful Harassment.

Deciding to Make a Complaint
The college encourages victims of sexual assault to make a complaint to the college and law enforcement officials as soon as possible. Reports to the college can be made with any individuals listed in the section below titled, “The College’s Duty to Investigate.” Prompt action under this policy allows for individuals to receive the immediate medical care that may be necessary to protect their health and/or preserve forensic information with sexual-assault-evidence-collection kit (also known as a rape kit). Prompt action also allows the college and/or law enforcement to provide individuals with reasonable and necessary protection from any further harm.

Deciding to make a complaint of sexual assault to the college and/or filing a complaint with law enforcement officials can be difficult. You do have options, and you do not have to make this decision alone. You can contact counselors at the Westmont College Counseling Center or the Santa Barbara Rape Crisis Center. Counselors with either of these resources will help you think through your options and the information you share with them will not be disclosed to others without your consent. You will find contact information for these resources and others later in this policy.

The College's Duty to Investigate
Whether or not you decide to make a complaint to the college yourself, you should know that the college does have a duty to investigate allegations of sexual assault and sharing information about a sexual assault with any of the following college officials will result in an investigation and a possible student conduct meeting in accordance with the procedures that follow this policy:

  • Resident directors
  • Student life deans
  • Faculty department chairs
  • College employee supervisors
  • Vice presidents
  • The college Title IX officer

Confidentiality and Privacy
Westmont will maintain confidentiality throughout and beyond its investigation of all complaints received under this policy. Information received in connection with a sexual assault complaint is private and will only be shared with those who need to know the information in order to investigate allegations, impose appropriate disciplinary sanctions and/or take necessary corrective actions to protect individuals and the community from further harm. In no case will the college violate the privacy rights afforded to students or others under relevant state and federal laws.

Counseling and Support
Whether or not a victim decides to submit a complaint of sexual assault to the college for investigation and discipline under this policy, the college is committed to providing a safe place to work through the range of emotions and questions that can arise in the event of a sexual assault. The college encourages individuals to take advantage of personal avenues of emotional support as well as one or more of the following resources:


Campus Resources

Counseling Center, 565-6003, Information and resource referral, Lower Campus

Campus Pastor's Office, 565-6170, Pastoral support and counseling, Kerr Student Center, Second Floor

*Health Center, 565-6164, Medical and information resource, Lower Campus

*Interim Vice President of Student Life and Dean of Students, 565-6038, Information about the student conduct process and list of advisers, Kerrwood Hall, Second Floor

*Special Assistant to the Dean, 565-6597, Information about the student conduct process and list of advisers, Kerrwood Hall, Second Floor

*Associate Dean for Residence Life, 565-6029, Information about the student conduct process and list of advisers, Kerrwood Hall, Second Floor

*Resident Director on Call, 565-7362, Emergency Response, information and referral resource

*Public Safety Department, 565-6222, Emergency Response

*Note: a campus resource with an asterisk appearing next to it indicates that the individual in the position has a duty to report the incident for investigation by the college under his policy and/or, in certain circumstances, to law enforcement officials.


Community Resources

Santa Barbara Rape Crisis Center Hotline, (805) 564-3696, 24-Hour Hotline

Santa Barbara Rape Crisis Center, 963-6832, 433 E. Canon Perdido Street, sbrapecrisiscenter.org

Cottage Hospital Trauma Center, 569-7451, Pueblo at Bath Street, Medical assistance and evidence collection


Definitions of Prohibited Behaviors

Sexual Assault (Category I) is defined as engaging in sexual intercourse with any person without that person’s consent. Sexual intercourse is the penetration, however slight, of the vagina or anus with any object or body part and of the mouth with a sexual body part or sexual object. Students found responsible for having committed a sexual assault (category I) will be suspended for a minimum of one (1) semester and will be subject to the full range of disciplinary sanctions, up to and including expulsion from the college.

Sexual Assault (Category II) is defined as the act of making sexual contact with the intimate body part of another person without that person’s consent. Intimate body parts include the sexual organs, the anus, the groin or buttocks of any person, or the breasts of a female. Students found responsible for having committed a sexual assault (category II) will be subject to the full range of disciplinary sanctions, up to and including expulsion from the college.

Consent is defined as unambiguous and willing participation or cooperation in an act or as an attitude that is commonly understood to be consistent with the exercise of free will. Consent requires participants who are fully conscious, are equally free to act, have clearly communicated their willingness, cooperation, or permission to participate in a specific sexual activity, are positive and clear in their desires, and are able to cease ongoing consensual activity at any time. Refusal to consent does not have to be verbal; it can be expressed with gestures, body language or attitude. A prior sexual history between the complainant and respondent does not constitute consent. Consent is not freely given if one of the following applies:

  1. A reasonable person in the position of the alleged perpetrator at the time the alleged conduct occurred should have known* that the other person was unable to give consent for any of the following reasons:
    1. The individual is unable to make an informed decision as a result of alcohol or other drugs (including but not limited to predatory drugs or prescribed medications); or
    2. The individual is unconscious, asleep, or suffering from shock; or
    3. The individual is under the age of 18 and therefore legally unable to give consent; or
    4. The individual has a known mental disorder or developmental or physical disability and therefore legally unable to give consent.

    * It is important to note that in the Westmont disciplinary process, use of alcohol does not diminish personal responsibility or act as a mitigating factor in disciplinary sanctions should a violation be found to have occurred.

  2. The individual has acted or spoken in a manner which expresses he or she refuses to give consent.
  3. It is obtained through the use of force or through the fear of or the threat of force.

Sexual Assault Student Conduct Process

The student conduct process described here applies to alleged violations of this policy (for all other alleged violations of the Community Life Statement or other college policy, refer to the conduct process section of the Student Handbook on page 79). Upon receipt of a report or complaint whether oral or written of an alleged violation, the associate dean for residence life (which, for all purposes described in this section, includes his or her designee) will begin a preliminary investigation and determine if there is enough information to merit a conduct meeting regarding the allegation. The associate dean for residence life will meet with the complainant and the respondent separately to explain the student conduct process and obtain from each a written statement and list of witnesses, if any, who have information pertinent to the incident.

A preliminary investigation by the associate dean for residence life (or his or her designee) will determine whether interim measures should be invoked. The purpose of interim measures is, to the extent possible, to ensure safety of all persons involved, reduce concerns for personal physical and emotional safety and overall prevent creation of a hostile environment for the individual and the community. Interim measures may include, but are not limited to, residence hall relocations; restrictions to campus housing or other campus locations and activities; alternative class assignments or classrooms; interim suspension.

After a prompt, full and effective investigation of the allegation, a determination will be made by the associate dean for residence life whether or not enough evidence exists to hold a conduct meeting. If a decision is made that not enough information exists, it is not necessarily or even usually based on the accuracy of the charges but rather on the strength of the information available. In other words, if a case does not result in disciplinary action against the respondent, it does not mean there is not a victim or there was no sexual assault.

If the associate dean for residence life determines that enough evidence exists to hold a conduct meeting, he or she will forward all relevant information to the Student Life Committee. The complainant and respondent will generally be given at least seventytwo (72) hour advance notice of the scheduled meeting time for the Student Life Committee Conduct Meeting.

Students are expected to participate in the student conduct process when they are called as a respondent or witness to a meeting. Should a student fail to appear for a meeting when proper notification has been given or should the student fail to provide a statement during the conduct process, the meeting will proceed without benefit of that student’s input. Meetings with the Student Life Committee will be scheduled taking into consideration the student’s regular academic schedule only.


Witness Truthfulness

One of the core values of the Westmont community is integrity and truth-telling. As such, all individuals participating in the student conduct process are expected to tell the full and complete truth in all disciplinary matters. In order to ensure this is possible, individuals participating in a student conduct meeting regarding an alleged violation of the Sexual Assault Policy should expect the Student Life Committee to exercise discernment and discretion regarding how to appropriately respond to other violations of the Community Life Statement or college policy that may arise in the conduct meeting process.


Confidentiality/Privacy

Every reasonable and appropriate effort will be taken by the Student Life Committee, Student Life office and advisers to protect the privacy of all individuals involved in a student conduct meeting. The college will maintain confidentiality regarding the details and content of the student conduct process including, but not limited to, the preliminary investigation, Student Life Committee conduct meeting and appeal process. The college will not share information about this process unless it is necessary for the investigation and resolution of a complaint made under this policy. In no case will the college violate privacy rights afforded to students and other individuals under federal and state law. Students involved in the student conduct process either directly or as a witness are expected to maintain the confidentiality of the process and be mindful of the privacy of others involved.


Rights of the Individual Alleging the Violation (Complainant)

  • The right to make a complaint which will initiate the student discipline process.
  • The right to a timely student conduct meeting after filing a complaint (cases reported just prior to the end of a semester may be delayed by the semester break).
  • The right to a support person of her or his choice in consultation with the associate dean for residence life (or the associate dean’s designee), who will assist the individual through the student conduct process.
  • The right not to have his or her irrelevant past sexual history discussed during the student conduct meeting.
  • The right to confront opposing information*.
  • The right to provide witnesses and information pertaining to the case.
  • The right to be informed as soon as possible of the outcome of the hearing.
  • The right to confidentiality of the student discipline process to the extent possible (see above).
  • The right to request academic schedule adjustments or other academic assistance for missed classes or exams or help with rearranging coursework.
  • The right to request a change of on-campus residence if both you and the accused live in residential housing, or you may request that the accused be moved pending a Student Life Committee hearing.
  • The right to request a no-contact order for the respondent as an interim measure through the student conduct process.
  • The right to on-campus emergency counseling sessions with a member of the Counseling Center staff.
  • The right to seek off-campus medical and counseling services.
  • The right to seek assistance from a member of the Counseling Center staff in a client relationship or the campus pastor in a confessor relationship.
  • The right to file a police report and take legal action separate from and/or in addition to student conduct process.
  • The right to have legal counsel present. In no case may counsel speak or take an advocacy role during the proceedings.
  • The right to not be subject to student conduct sanctions for alcohol or drug use where the sexual assault involves consumption of alcohol or drugs in a manner that violates college policy.

Rights of the Individual Accused of Sexual Assault (Respondent)

  • The right to receive written notice of the charges.
  • The right to a timely student conduct meeting after being notified of the complaint (cases reported just prior to the end of a semester may be delayed by the semester break).
  • The right to a support person of her or his choice in consultation with the associate dean for residence life (or the associate dean’s designee) who will assist the individual through the student conduct process.
  • The right to pursue his or her educational experience while the student conduct process is still pending free from harassment by the complainant or individuals connected to the complainant. Anyone who feels they have been inappropriately contacted by the complainant or individuals connected to the complainant should immediately contact the dean of students.
  • The right not to have his or her irrelevant past sexual history discussed during the student conduct meeting.
  • The right to not be required to give incriminating evidence (the college may make negative inferences from the accused student’s decision to not give testimony).
  • The right to confront opposing information*.
  • The right to provide witnesses and information pertaining to the case.
  • The right to be informed as soon as possible of the outcome of the student conduct meeting.
  • The right to confidentiality of the student conduct process to the extent possible (see above).
  • The right to on-campus emergency counseling sessions with a member of the Counseling Center staff. The right to seek confidential assistance from a member of the Counseling Center staff in a client relationship or the campus pastor in a confessor relationship.
  • The right to seek outside counseling support.
  • The right to have legal counsel present. In no case may counsel speak or take an advocacy role during the proceedings.
  • The right to not be subject to student conduct sanctions for alcohol or drug use where the sexual assault involves consumption of alcohol or drugs in a manner that violates college policy.

*The Right To Confront Opposing Information

The right to confront opposing information does not mean that students have the right to directly confront, question or speak to witnesses. The right to confront opposing information means that the respondent and the complainant (when applicable) have the right:

  • To view one another’s written statements submitted to the investigator prior to the conduct meeting.
  • To be verbally informed during the conduct meeting of relevant and material, opposing information communicated to or discovered by the investigator during the course of the investigation.
  • To be verbally informed during the conduct meeting of relevant and material, opposing information communicated by any witness during the conduct meeting.

Relevant and material information is information directly related to the merits of the violation alleged that when considered would influence the decision maker(s) in reaching a decision.


Support and Legal Counsel

Support

Parents, relatives and friends are not permitted during student conduct proceedings. However, students are strongly encouraged but not required to choose—upon approval of the associate dean for residence life—a faculty or staff member to support them during proceedings under this policy. The individual chosen may not be a student, parent, relative, an attorney or representative of an attorney. The faculty or staff member chosen may be present at any time during the proceedings but is not an advocate for the student in the proceedings and may not address the Student Life Committee or speak on behalf of the student. The faculty or staff member chosen may speak with the student privately and in a manner that is not disruptive.

Legal Counsel

Both the accused and the accuser also have the right to have legal counsel present. However, in no case may counsel speak or take an advocacy role during the proceedings.

Any faculty or staff member or legal adviser participating in the proceedings under this policy is obligated to maintain the confidentiality of the nature of the allegation(s), the content of the student conduct process, and the privacy of the complainant, respondent and any witnesses.


Student Life Committee Hearing

The Student Life Committee is comprised of faculty, staff and students who have been trained to hear sexual assault cases. The committee includes the dean of students, an associate provost, three faculty members, two student life members and two students. At least two faculty members (which could include the associate provost and must include the Student Life Committee chair or acting chair), two student life members(one of which must be the Dean or designee), and one student must be present to convene the committee. The associate dean for residence life serves as the student conduct process facilitator for all sexual assault cases and may be present during the meeting. The facilitator’s role is to assist the chair and to ensure compliance with the process and procedures outlined below. A staff member from the Dean’s office may also be present to take notes during the testimony portion of the meeting.

It is expected that Student Life Committee members will exhibit the highest ethical standards and disqualify themselves if they believe they cannot be impartial or fulfill their obligation to maintain the confidentiality of the process and the dignity and privacy of the respondent, the complainant and any witnesses before, during and after the conduct meeting. Both the respondent and complainant may raise issues of concern about the impartiality of a member of the Student Life Committee convened for a particular case. The dean of students has the sole discretion to decide whether a Student Life Committee member can be impartial and will remove anyone whom he/she determines is unable to be impartial and/or respectful of the confidentiality of the process and privacy of the individuals involved.

Before the Student Life Committee Meeting

Prior to the committee meeting, the complainant and respondent may arrange to have witness statements submitted. The associate dean for residence life will determine when such statements must arrive in order to give the committee adequate time to review the submitted statements. Also prior to the committee meeting, all relevant information regarding the alleged misconduct will be forwarded to the Student Life Committee. Within seven days of the committee's receipt of the information, the Student Life office will notify the student of the time and date of the meeting and a statement of the alleged misconduct. Generally seventy-two (72) hour advance notice of the scheduled meeting time for Student Life Committee Meeting will be given. Students are expected to participate in the student conduct process when they are called as a respondent or witness to a meeting. Should a student fail to appear for a meeting when proper notification has been given or should the student fail to provide a statement during the conduct process, the meeting will proceed without benefit of that student’s input. Meetings with the Student Life Committee will be scheduled taking into consideration the student’s regular academic schedule only.

Student Life is committed to prompt resolution of all student conduct proceedings. However, in some cases, such as insuring the thoroughness of the review or to permit time for students to secure legal counsel, the dean of students will permit a short delay of the proceedings.

Student Life Committee Meeting

At the time of the meeting, the staff member(s) who obtained the information upon which the allegation is based may be called to meet before the committee. The committee may also choose, but is not required, to meet with any witnesses or others referenced in the information it receives. The respondent will not have the right to question the complainant or any witnesses (if applicable), but will have the opportunity to confront opposing information (see previous section titled “Confronting Opposing Information”).If the student refuses to answer questions at the meeting on grounds of the Fifth Amendment privilege, or if they choose not to attend the meeting, the meeting can still take place, and the student conduct officer may draw negative inferences that may result in sanctions. Student Life Committee proceedings are closed to all parties except the individual student(s), the Student Life Committee members, the associate dean for residence life or designee, witnesses and the respective student’s designated support person.

The following is an outline of the Student Life Committee meeting:

  1. The chair will convene the Student Life Committee, and the Student Life Committee will meet with participants in the following order:
    1. Complainant
    2. Respondent
    3. Any witnesses requested by the Student Life Committee
  2. All participants must be available for recall by the Student Life Committee for additional questioning until the conclusion of the Student Life Committee proceedings.
  3. Prior to the Student Life Committee deliberations the following will occur:
    1. The chair will give members of the committee the opportunity to ask the respondent any follow-up questions, and will give the respondent an opportunity to make a final statement to the Student Life Committee. The respondent is then excused from the proceedings.
    2. The chair will give members of the committee the opportunity to ask the complainant any follow-up questions, and will give the complainant an opportunity to make a final statement to the Student Life Committee. The complainant is then excused from the proceedings.

Decision

At the conclusion of the meeting, the Student Life Committee will deliberate in private, and, weighing all of the available information, the Student Life Committee must determine whether it is more likely than not that a sexual assault occurred. This level of proof is commonly referred to as a “preponderance of the evidence.” This level is a lesser level than that used in the criminal justice system, which requires that a case be established “beyond a reasonable doubt.” The Student Life Committee will determine one of the following appropriate findings by majority vote:

    1. It is more likely than not that the alleged violation occurred, and the respondent is responsible; the Student Life Committee will impose sanctions, as appropriate; or
    2. It is more likely than not that the alleged violation did not occur and the respondent is not responsible; or
    3. There is not sufficient information available to make a determination.

Note: In the event of a finding of (b) or (c) is reached by the committee, the finding is not necessarily based on the accuracy of the charges but rather on the strength of the information available.

The chair of the Student Life Committee and the dean of students will communicate the finding of the Student Life Committee to the respondent and the complainant in writing generally within seven (7) business days. Unavoidable delay in providing notice of outcome shall not constitute an appealable procedural error.


Sanctions

The college has established the minimum sanctions for violations of the Sexual Assault Policy found in the Definitions of Prohibited Behaviors section of this policy. More severe sanctions may be imposed by the Student Life Committee depending on the circumstances of a particular case. Any one or more of the sanctions found in the sanctions section of the Student Conduct Process may be assessed to a student found responsible for violating the Sexual Assault Policy.


Appeals

This process applies to an appeal of sanctions received from a violation of the Sexual Assault policy only. For appeal of sanctions received from a violation of other college policies, refer to the Appeals section of the Student Conduct Process. Both the complainant and the respondent may seek review of a decision in a sexual assault case by making an appeal. Appeals must be in writing and submitted to the Student Life office during regular business hours (Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.) within three calendar days of the decision. If the third day falls on a non-business day, submit appeals via email to stulife@westmont.edu. In extremely unusual circumstances, students may request in writing to the provost after more than three days to appeal a decision. Such requests are rarely granted, and the decision to grant or deny an extension is within the sole discretion of the provost (which, for all purposes described in this section, includes his or her designee).

If an appeal is received from either the complainant or the respondent, the associate dean for residence life will notify, in writing, the non-appealing student within two business days of receipt of the appeal that an appeal has been filed.

Only one request for an appeal may be submitted by either the complainant and/or the respondent.

Appeal Criteria

An appeal must be in writing and consist of:

  1. A completed Appeal Request form (available in the Student Life office), and
  2. A statement outlining and supporting the specific grounds on which the student is appealing.

The appeal is not a rehearing of the original case and the role of the provost is not to substitute his or her own judgment for the judgment of the Student Life Committee. The role of the provost is to determine whether a new decision should be considered due to a procedural error, the availability of new information or the imposition of excessive sanctions. Therefore, a student’s appeal must be based on one or more of the following grounds:

  • A process or procedural error was made that was significantly prejudicial to the outcome of the student conduct meeting as it affects the student appealing.
  • New information that was not available or known to the student appealing at the time of the student conduct meeting has arisen which, when considered, may materially alter the outcome. Note: Information that the appealing student chose not to present at the time of the hearing is not considered new information.
  • The sanctions imposed are so severe — considering the nature of the violation, student attitude, previous history, impact of the student's behavior on the community and other specific circumstances — that they demonstrate an abuse of discretion by the Student Life Committee. (Note: the complainant may use the same grounds to appeal that sanctions imposed are not severe enough.)

It is not enough to simply assert one of the grounds for appeal. The written statement accompanying the appeal form must provide information that supports grounds upon which the student bases the appeal. For example: If the student asserts that a procedural error occurred he or she must name the procedure with specificity and explain how the error affected the decision made. If an appeal does not contain sufficient information to support the grounds upon which the student bases the appeal, review of the appeal will be denied.

During the appeal process, the dean of students may choose to set aside sanctions as appropriate.

Preliminary Review of Appeal

The provost will grant or deny review of decisions rendered in student conduct meetings based on the student’s written appeal. The decision to grant or deny review of the original decision will be made within three business days following receipt of appeal.

  1. Review Denied: Provost will not review an original decision based on an appeal that fails to meet the criteria outlined above. In such cases, the appeal officer will make no inquiry beyond the written material submitted and the original decision and any sanctions imposed will stand.
  2. Review Granted: If the student’s written appeal satisfies the appeal criteria, the provost will grant a review of the original decision.

If the provost grants a review of the appeal, the associate dean for residence life will communicate to the non-appealing student this decision and provide the non-appealing student an opportunity to view a copy of the appeal. Within three calendar days of such notification, the non-appealing student may submit a written statement to the provost that he/she wishes to be considered by the provost.

Appeal Review

The provost has two options regarding who will make a decision on the appeal:

  • The provost will make a decision on the appeal; or
  • The provost will refer the appeal back to the Student Life Committee for a decision on the appeal. If the provost refers the appeal to the Student Life Committee for a decision, the provost will give instructions to the Student Life Committee to review the original decision in light of the information contained in the appeal.

The choice between these two review bodies is in the sole discretion of the provost. The provost will communicate to the appealing student whether the provost or the Student Life Committee will be the reviewing body for the appeal.

As part of the appeal review process, the reviewing body will consider material and/or testimony previously presented or a written summary of the previous proceedings. The review body may, but is not required to, meet with the complainant, respondent, any witnesses and/or members of the Student Life Committee (if reviewed by the provost) prior to making a decision regarding the appeal.

Appeal Decision

Following a prompt and effective review, the provost or Student Life Committee chair (as appropriate) will communicate a decision on the student’s appeal no later than ten business days following the decision to grant a review of the original decision. The decision will be communicated in writing to both the appealing and non-appealing student. The decision will be in one of the two following forms:

  1. Original Decision Upheld: Where review of the original decision does not demonstrate a different decision is warranted, the original decision will be upheld.
  2. Original Decision Modified: Where review of the original decision demonstrates support for the appeal and a different decision is warranted, the review body will modify the original decision. This decision may include sanctions being decreased, modified, or revoked. Only in instances when the complainant appeals the decision may sanctions be increased.

The decision on the appeal is final, and no other office will accept or review appeals following the decision.


Timely Warning of Campus Threats and Emergencies

  1. Purpose: In accordance with federal law and in order to protect members of the campus community, the college establishes the following policy for the timely reporting of criminal offenses and other emergencies or dangerous situations that pose a threat to the campus community.
  2. Policy: Upon confirmation of a reportable criminal offense (For purposes of this policy a reportable criminal offense includes crimes as described in The Clery Act at 20 U.S.C. § 1092(f)(1)F(i)) or other emergency considered to be a threat to health or safety, the college will immediately notify foreseeably affected members of the campus community (unless to do so will further jeopardize their health or safety).
  3. Procedures: Upon receipt of information that a reportable offense has occurred and has been reported to Public Safety and/or local law enforcement, the college will take the following actions:
    1. A member of the Situation Readiness and Response Team (SRT), Executive Team or Public Safety staff will determine whether the reportable offense or emergency amounts to an actual threat to the health and safety of the campus community.
    2. A member or designee of the SRT or Executive Team will then prepare an appropriate warning to the campus community that:
      1. describe the nature of the threat;
      2. provide instructions and/or recommendations on actions to take in light of the nature of the threat; and
      3. include information on evacuation procedures if the threat requires such action.
    3. An SRT member or designee will communicate the timely warning to the campus community through any means appropriate including, but not limited to, one or more of the following ways:
      1. email alerts
      2. phone alerts (Text to Speech (TTS) and/or text messages and/or hotline postings)
      3. website announcements
      4. posted warnings